Dementia Pathways. For Primary Care in ireland

BPSD stands for Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia. The majority of people with dementia will experience Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) at some time during their illness, particularly in the middle and later stages.

It is a particularly difficult aspect of the illness to manage and frequently results in admissions to long term care.

Behavioural symptoms: Usually identified on the basis of observation, symptoms include:

  • physical aggression
  • loud vocalisation
  • restlessness
  • agitation
  • wandering


Psychological symptoms: Usually assessed on the basis of interviews with patients and relatives; these symptoms include:

  • anxiety
  • depressive mood
  • hallucinations
  • delusions